Sunday, December 25, 2005

Grammar - Locative Particle NA Part 1

na is a so called Locative Partice, it locates something from the right to the left. For example right to the na particle is a verb, and it's pointing to the location on the left side.

There are two possible dimensions it locates, time or place. Usually a good quick word to use for translation is when.

Here are some examples of place:

khams gsum na - in the three realms
dkyil 'khor na - (reside) in the mandala

Here are some concerning time:

dus na - when (the) time (is)
de'i tshe na - at that time

However, na is a very flexible particle, expect it to be used in all kinds of other variations, such as

kha cig na - when some (do something) , kha cig - some
kho na - when alone, kho - he or she

and especially! zhen na - when attached (to)

Actually, expect to see and hear 'o na a lot, it means in that case, if that is so, very common in some commentary texts. There are many common expressions with na, so this article needs part 2.

Homework, go through the Jetsun Drakpa Gyeltsen commentary on zhen pa bzhi bral and find examples of na, especially zhen na.

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